Returns to research and outreach for integrated pest management of western flower thrips infesting French bean and tomato in Kenya

Mujuka, E A and Affognon, H D and Muriithi, B W and Subramanian, S and Irungu, P and Mburu, J (2017) Returns to research and outreach for integrated pest management of western flower thrips infesting French bean and tomato in Kenya. International Journal of Tropical Insect Science. pp. 1-11. ISSN 1742-7584

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Thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), is a major invasive pest that causes extensive yield losses in French bean and tomato in Kenya. Thrips management is based on the application of pesticides. In addition to increased environmental risks associated with pesticides, frequent use of these chemicals increases production costs and pesticide resistance. Furthermore, exports are restricted due to non-compliance to maximum residue levels in important consumer export markets, especially the European Union (EU). This study was conducted to estimate the potential benefits of the effectiveness of the icipe-developed strategy for control of western flower thrips before dissemination of the technology in Kenya, using the economic surplus model. We calculated the benefit–cost ratio, the Net Present Value (NPV) and the Internal Rate of Return (IRR) using Cost–Benefit Analysis (CBA). Assuming a maximum conservative adoption rate of 1% and a 10% discount rate for the base deterministic scenario, the NPV of the research was estimated at US$2.2 million, with an IRR of 23% and a BCR of 2.46. Sensitivity analyses indicated that the NPV, IRR and BCR increased at an increasing rate as adoption rates increased. However, as elasticities of supply and demand increased, the NPV, IRR and BCR increased at a decreasing rate. The findings demonstrate that farmers from developing countries can gain when they obtain access to suitable pest management innovations such as integrated pest management technologies. Consequently, investment in IPM technologies for suppression of western flower thrips should be enhanced.

Item Type: Article
Divisions: Research Program : West & Central Africa
CRP: CGIAR Research Program on Grain Legumes
Uncontrolled Keywords: Integrated pest management, economic surplus model, thrips, Kenya, French bean, IPM
Subjects: Others > Entomology
Others > African Agriculture
Others > Kenya
Depositing User: Mr Ramesh K
Date Deposited: 18 Apr 2017 08:30
Last Modified: 06 Sep 2017 08:28
Official URL:
Acknowledgement: This study was funded by BMZ (the German FederalMinistry for Economic Cooperation and Development) through the GIZ (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit) funded project entitled ‘Implementation of integrated thrips and tospovirus management strategies in smallholder vegetable cropping systems of Eastern Africa’ (Project no. 11.7860.7-001.00, contract no. 81141840). We also gratefully acknowledge core support to icipe, Kenya provided by UK Aid from the UK Government, Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (Sida), the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC), Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ), Germany and the Kenyan Government. The views expressed herein do not necessarily reflect the official opinion of the donors. We are also indebted to our project colleagues, Patrick Onchieku, Jane Maundu, Josephine Simiyu, Jacqueline Oseko and Wilfred Yako for supporting this study with data and for valuable discussions.We appreciate the staff members that were involved in this study from the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries (MOALF) and the Kenya Agricultural & Livestock Research Organization (KALRO).
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