Growth and production of groundnut

Prasad, P V V and Kakani, V G and Upadhyaya, H D (2010) Growth and production of groundnut. In: Soils, Plant Growth and Crop Production. Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS), Developed under the Auspices of the UNESCO , Oxford UK, pp. 1-26.

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The groundnut or peanut is one of the important legume crops of tropical and semiarid tropical countries, where it provides a major source of edible oil and vegetable protein. Groundnut kernels contain 47-53% oil and 25-36% protein. The crop is cultivated between 40ºN to 40ºS of the equator. Groundnut is a self pollinated crop whereby flowers are produced above ground and, after fertilization, pegs move towards the soil, and seed-containing pods are formed and developed underneath the soil. The productivity of groundnuts varies from 3500 kg/ha in the United States of America to 2500 kg/ha in South America, 1600 kg/ha in Asia, and less than 800 kg/ha in Africa. This is due mainly to various abiotic and biotic constraints. Abiotic stresses of prime importance include temperature extremes, drought stress, soil factors such as alkalinity, poor soil fertility and nutrient deficiencies. Groundnuts grow best in light textured sandy loam soils with neutral pH. Optimum temperature for their growth and development ranges from 28 to 30 ºC; the crop requires about 500-600 mm of well distributed rainfall. The main yield limiting factors in semiarid regions are drought and high temperature stress. The stages of reproductive development prior to flowering, at flowering and at early pod development, are particularly sensitive to these constraints. Apart from N, P and K, other nutrient deficiencies causing significant yield losses are Ca, Fe and B. Biotic stresses mainly include pests, diseases and weeds. Among insects pests pod borers, aphids and mites are of importance. The most important diseases are leaf spots, rusts and the toxin-producing fungus Aspergillus.

Item Type: Book Section
Uncontrolled Keywords: Aflatoxin, drought, genetic resources, growth and development, legume, nitrogen fixation, oil seed, temperature stress.
Subjects: Mandate crops > Groundnut
Depositing User: Mr Sanat Kumar Behera
Date Deposited: 22 Mar 2012 08:47
Last Modified: 23 Jul 2013 08:26
Acknowledgement: UNSPECIFIED
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