Groundnut Seed Systems in West Africa: Current Practices, Constraints and Opportunities

Ndjeunga, J and Ntare, B R and Waliyar, F and Ramouch, M (2006) Groundnut Seed Systems in West Africa: Current Practices, Constraints and Opportunities. Technical Report. International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics, Patancheru, Andhra Pradesh, India.

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This study is based on comprehensive institutional and household surveys conducted in four countries in West Africa – Mali, Niger, Nigeria and Senegal. It has largely benefi ted from the fi nancial support of the Common Fund for Commodities (CFC) in the Groundnut Seed Project (GSP), implemented by the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) and partners including the Institut d’Economie Rurale (IER) in Mali, the Institut National de Recherche Agronomique du Niger (INRAN), the Institute of Agricultural Research (IAR) in Niger, the Institut Sénégalais de Recherches Agricoles (ISRA) in Senegal, and the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) of the United Nations. The assistance of contributors and parent organizations is greatly appreciated. We acknowledge the contribution from numerous key informants/resource persons in the research and development continuum. These include all partner scientists (Drs Echekwu and Sanussi Mohammed in Nigeria; Dr Issoufou Kapran, Mr Mounkeila and Mr Hassane Djingarey in Niger; Mr Arthur da Sylva and Mr Ndoye in Senegal; and Mr Ondie Kodio, Mr Badiori and Mr Alpha Kergna in Mali), partners in the extension branch [ADP Managing and Extension Service Directors of KNARDA (Mr Awulu Usman, Mr Balarabe Shehu, Mr Ado Ibrahim Nagodi and Mr Abdullahi A Kassim); JARDA (Mr Ahmed Ahmed, Mr Husaini Abubakar, Mr Ishaq Abullahi, Mr Haruna Usman and Mr Gado Ibrahim Aliyu); KTARDA (Mr Abashe Saidou, Mr Rabe Ousmane and Mr Yusuf Abubakar); KADP (Mr Kassim, Mr Daniel Jacob and Mr Tako Noma) in Nigeria; in Mali, Mr Siraman Samaké, Mr Siaka Coulibaly, Mr Diallo Djougamadi and Mr Dassé Bouaré; in Niger, Mr Daniel Marshall, Mr Hassane Bissala, Ms Hassana and Mr Paul Buckner; and fi nally in Senegal, Mr Abba Dieme]; partners in the private sector [the Managing Directors of private seed companies (Eng. SD Yakubu Atar, Mr Archie Bagudu, in Nigeria; and Alhadji Hima Hassouma, Mr Hamadou Abdou, Mr Issaka Aboubacar, Alhadji Salifou Mahamane, and large seed producers in Niger) and the Directors of oil seed processing companies (Alhadji Baba Buhari Sani, Mr Abdul Karim Hussain, Mr Ibrahim Mohammed and Mr Harold A Blackburne in Nigeria; and Mr Konongori in Niger) and CGIAR partners, Dr BB Singh and Mr Innocent Ezeaku]. We are largely indebted to all the farmers in Mali, Niger, Nigeria and Senegal, who tirelessly responded to our questions and enlightened us on the many ways they source their seed, manage their seed stocks, their preferences on traits and varieties and the constraints they face in the groundnut seed supply chains.


Low productivity of groundnut-based systems, afl atoxin regulations, and stricter grades and standards have lowered the competitiveness of the West African groundnut in the domestic, regional and international markets. To regain its market, groundnut productivity has to increase through the adoption of new technologies and the development of sustainable seed systems. The availability and uptake of high quality seed by farmers is fundamental to the transformation of predominant traditional agricultural production practices to achieve increased stability and sustainable food production in West Africa. New seeds with higher yield potential or ability to relieve constraints faced by farmers in using traditional varieties form part of the improved inputs required to increase crop production. Previous support by the CFC and ICRISAT has been largely successful in germplasm conservation, variety maintenance and the development of appropriate groundnut varieties that meet farmers’ preferences and market requirements. Governments have attempted to develop seed multiplication and distribution schemes through state seed projects. However, in the light of increased liberalization of economies and structural adjustment policies, governments are disengaging from seed production and distribution activities. There is therefore a need to rethink alternative and sustainable arrangements for seed production and delivery schemes. This technical paper summarizes information on the structure, conduct and performance of formal and informal groundnut seed supply systems in the four countries of West Africa namely Mali, Niger, Nigeria and Senegal. It highlights a range of technical, socioeconomic, institutional and policy constraints facing the groundnut seed industry in West Africa. Low and inconsistent supply of breeder seed, poor seed demand estimation, lack of or non-functional national variety release committees, inappropriate institutional arrangements and the biological features of groundnut have limited the private sector entry and the performance of the groundnut seed industry. Options likely to be sustainable should focus on local village seed schemes whereas small-scale private seed entrepreneurs or community-based seed systems should be encouraged to become seed entrepreneurs or engaged in the seed industry. There is evidence of vertical integration between inputs and product markets. Appropriate linkages between seed and grain producers, and grain producers and processors are necessary to drive the private sector entry in the seed industry.It is our hope and expectation that this report will provide valuable information towards improving the performance of groundnut seed markets and offer alternative and sustainable seed multiplication and delivery options to smallholder farmers throughout Sub-Saharan Africa where the economies are still agriculture-dependent

Item Type: Monograph (Technical Report)
Subjects: Mandate crops > Groundnut
Depositing User: Library ICRISAT
Date Deposited: 07 Jan 2012 12:54
Last Modified: 07 Jan 2012 12:54
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