Assessment of Aflatoxin Exposure among Indian Population

Anitha, S (2011) Assessment of Aflatoxin Exposure among Indian Population. PHD thesis, Nizam’s Institute of Medical Sciences.

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Supervisors NameSupervisors ID
Raghunadharao, DUNSPECIFIED


What impact does dietary exposure to aflatoxins has on hepatocellular carcinoma in India? Assessing the connection between aflatoxin contamination in the diets, Hepatitis B virus infection and liver cirrhosis through Hospital based study in Andhra Pradesh, India Chronic exposure to aflatoxins was shown to cause impaired growth in children, immune suppression and liver cirrhosis, interference in micronutrient metabolism and reduced human and animal productivity. Acute severe intoxication can result in death. Most importantly, aflatoxin was shown to interact synergistically with Hepatitis B virus (HBV) / Hepatitis C virus infection. It increases the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), one of the most common cancers in the developing countries with >400,000 new cases per annum. A joint FAO and WHO committee concluded that reduced intake of aflatoxins in HBV endemic places will have a greater impact on reducing the incidence of HCC. This requires knowledge on the level of aflatoxin exposure in populations, dietary sources of contamination and household dietary practices leading to frequent food contamination in order to identify high risk groups and to develop preventive interventions to mitigate human exposure to aflatoxins. Aflatoxins in human body are metabolized by the liver enzymes and produces aflatoxin 8,9-epoxide, which reacts with albumin in the liver to form AFB1-albumin adducts that are major biomarkers found in peripheral blood. In order to protect human health it is important to be able to estimate aflatoxin-albumin adduct in human blood. Among many methods available for estimation immunochemical methods are simple, cost effective and adaptable to situations in developing countries. Hence this study is proposed to assess the aflatoxin exposure in Indian populations using ELISA which will lead to the development of preventive interventions to minimize the risk of liver disorders and HCC. This thesis is divided into 9 chapters containing subsections. Chapter 1 and chapter 2 contains the introduction and review of literature. Chapter 3 contains materials and methods for the development of antibodies to detect aflatoxin-albumin adduct in human blood samples. Chapter 4 contains Results. Chapter 5 and 6 contains discussion, summary and conclusion. Chapter 7 contains references, Chapter 8 contains appendix and Chapter 9 contains Annexure I, II and Master charts.

Item Type: Thesis (PHD)
Subjects: Others > Plant Pathology
Others > Plant Virology
Others > Agriculture-Farming, Production, Technology, Economics
Depositing User: Mr Sanat Kumar Behera
Date Deposited: 04 Jan 2012 12:17
Last Modified: 20 Nov 2015 05:12
Acknowledgement: I express my sincere gratitude to my supervisor Professor. D. Raghunadharao, Professor of Medical Oncology, Nizam’s Institute of Medical Sciences (NIMS), and Co supervisors Dr. Farid Waliyar, Director, West and Central Africa, ICRISAT, Bamako, Mali and Dr.Hari K Sudini, Scientist, Groundnut Pathology, ICRISAT, India for their inspiring guidance and constant encouragement, moral support and care which contributed to successful completion of this thesis. I express my special thanks to Prof. A. Dharma Rakshak, Director and Prof. V. R. Srinivasan, Dean, NIMS, Panjagutta, Hyderabad for providing me the opportunity to carry out this PhD program. I would like to thank Dr. V. Balaji, former global leader, KSI, ICRISAT, for granting permission to undertake this project work at ICRISAT. I would like to thank Dr. Rosana P Mula, Coordinator, Learning Systems Unit (LSU), Knowledge Sharing and Innovation (KSI), ICRISAT for her constant support to complete this thesis. I would like to express my gratitude and reverence to Dr. Anjali Karande, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore for her able guidance in producing monoclonal antibodies. I wish to extend my special thanks to Dr. P. Lava Kumar, International Institute of Tropical agriculture (IITA), PMB 5320, Ibadan, Nigeria who encouraged me throughout this endeavor. I am very grateful to Drs. C. P. Wild and P. C. Turner, University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom; Dr. G. Sabbioni, Institute of Toxicology and Pharmacology, University of Wurzburg, Wurzburg, Germany, for helping with technical hints which were very useful in this study and also for sharing relevant literature. I would like to thank my colleagues from the Department of Medical Oncology, NIMS, Dr. U. Srihari, Mr.P. Dora Babu, Dr. Sangeetha Jiwatani, Dr. Sailaja, Mr. Surender Thakur, Ms. Chandana Pal, and Mr. Mohammed Ahmed for their support. I would like to thank my friends and colleagues, Mr. S. Veera Reddy and Mr. A. Sudharshan Reddy, Scientific officers; and to Mrs. S. Rohini, Mr. Ch. Sridhar Kumar, Mrs. G. Harini, Mrs. Nimo, Mrs. K. Aparna, Mrs. Krithika and Ms. Phuspa, Mr. Dinakar for their cooperation and help during my study period in ICRISAT. My special thanks goes to Mr. S. V. Prasad Rao, Mr. S. Damodar, Mr. D. Venkateswar Rao, Learning Systems Unit, and support staff of Virology and Mycotoxicology Laboratory, Mr. S. Prabhakar Reddy, Mr. B. Bhaskar Raju, Mr.Ch. Ravinderrao, Mr. Y. Ramachandraiah for providing logistical support at ICRISAT. I wish to express my gratitude to H.H. Sri Sri Ravishankar, Art of living, Bangalore for his support and blessings. I wish to express my sincere thanks to my husband, Dr. S. Dayakar, to my father Sri S. Sathurappan, to my brother-in-law Dr. Nageswara Rao and to my mother-in-law for their rock solid support and encouragement to my 6 education and career development. Last but not least, I wish to thank my baby daughter, S.A. Miruthika Devi, who has forgone my care for most part of the day, and yet keep smiling at me providing immense relief and rejuvenation. If it were not for their sacrifice this endeavor would not have completed. I wish to express my sincere thanks to Dr. Dharmesh Kapoor, Dr. M. Parveen, of the Department of Gastroenterology, Global Hospitals, Hyderabad and Dr. Mrs. Ratna Rao, Department of Microbiology and Immunoserology, Apollo Health City, Hyderabad, for providing samples. I wish to acknowledge Mrs. Sandhya Gir, Mr. Gowtham and all other staff of ICRISAT and NIMS libraries for providing literatures. I gratefully acknowledge financial support from the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT), Hyderabad for completing my project work.
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