Approaches to enhance the value of genetic resources in crop improvement

Dwivedi, S L and Upadhyaya, H D and Gowda, C L L (2009) Approaches to enhance the value of genetic resources in crop improvement. In: Strengthening information on Plant Genetic Resources in Asia, 2009, Bangkok, Thailand.

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Plant genetic resources are the basic raw materials for future genetic progress and an insurance against unforeseen threats to future agricultural production. Its use in crop improvement is one of the most sustainable ways to conserve valuable genetic resources. Over 6 million ex situ germplasm accessions are conserved in 1308 genebanks globally, of which, about 10% ARE held in trust by the CGIAR centers’ genebanks. ICRISAT has one of the largest genebanks in the CGIAR system, holding 119,074 accessions of its mandate crops from 144 countries (as of May 09). Of these, 113,830 accessions are designated to the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture under the auspices of FAO. The genetic base of improved cultivars of many crops, including ICRISAT mandate crops, is narrow. In spite of large number of germplasm accessions available in the genebanks, there has been very limited use of these accessions in crop improvement programs. The reasons for the underutilization of germplasm include i) lack of accurate and precise large scale multi-location evaluation of germplasm, ii) lack of rational systematic entry points into the vast international collections, and the iii) lack of robust, cost-effective tools to facilitate the efficient utilization of exotic germplasm in plant breeding programs. Clearly, there is a need to increase the use of genetically diverse germplasm with beneficial traits in crop improvement programs to meet the emerging challenges in agricultural production. We discuss below the range of information that we have generated about the germplasm collections and the approaches to use information to identify genetically diverse germplasm. Included in the discussion are also updates on the manual for genebank operations and procedures, information bulletin on mini core, crop germplasm registration, feedback on germplasm utilization, and impact of germplasm in crop improvement.

Item Type: Conference or Workshop Item (Paper)
Subjects: Others > Genetics and Genomics
Others > Plant Virology
Others > Agriculture-Farming, Production, Technology, Economics
Depositing User: Mr Sanat Kumar Behera
Date Deposited: 22 Nov 2011 04:52
Last Modified: 22 Nov 2011 04:53
Acknowledgement: UNSPECIFIED
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