A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Potential of Millets for Managing and Reducing the Risk of Developing Diabetes Mellitus

Anitha, S and Kane-Potaka, J and Tsusaka, T W and Botha, R and Ananthan, R and Givens, I D and Parasannanavar, D J and Subramaniam, K and Prasad, K D V and Vetriventhan, M and Bhandari, R J (2021) A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Potential of Millets for Managing and Reducing the Risk of Developing Diabetes Mellitus. Frontiers in Nutrition (TSI), 8 (687428). ISSN 2296-861X

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Millets (including sorghum) are known to be highly nutritious besides having a low carbon footprint and the ability to survive in high temperatures with minimal water. Millets are widely recognised as having a low Glycaemic Index (GI) helping to manage diabetes. This systematic review and meta-analyzes across the different types of millets and different forms of processing/cooking collated all evidences. Of the 65 studies that were collected globally, 39 studies with 111 observations were used to analyze GI outcomes and 56 studies were used to analyze fasting, post-prandial glucose level, insulin index and HbA1c outcomes in a meta-analysis. It is evident from the descriptive statistics that the mean GI of millets is 52.7 ± 10.3, which is about 36% lower than in typical staples of milled rice (71.7 ± 14.4) and refined wheat (74.2 ± 14.9). The descriptive, meta and regression analyses revealed that Job’s tears, fonio, foxtail, barnyard, and teff were the millets with low mean GI (<55) that are more effective (35–79%) in reducing dietary GI than the control samples. Millets with intermediate GI (55–69) are pearl millet, finger millet, kodo millet, little millet, and sorghum which have a 13–35% lower GI than the control with high GI (>69). A meta-analysis also showed that all millets had significantly (p < 0.01) lower GI than white rice, refined wheat, standard glucose or white wheat bread except little millet which had inconsistent data. Long term millet consumption lowered fasting and post-prandial blood glucose levels significantly (p < 0.01) by 12 and 15%, respectively, in diabetic subjects. There was a significant reduction in HbA1c level (from 6.65 ± 0.4 to 5.67 ± 0.4%) among pre-diabetic individuals (p < 0.01) who consumed millets for a long period. Minimally processed millets were 30% more effective in lowering GI of a meal compared to milled rice and refined wheat. In conclusion, millets can be beneficial in managing and reducing the risk of developing diabetes and could therefore be used to design appropriate meals for diabetic and pre-diabetic subjects as well as for non-diabetic people for a preventive approach.

Item Type: Article
Divisions: Strategic Marketing and Communication
Uncontrolled Keywords: Millets, sorghum, diabetes, glycaemic index, glycaemic response, meta-analaysis
Subjects: Others > Smart Foods
Mandate crops > Millets > Pearl Millet
Mandate crops > Millets > Finger Millet
Mandate crops > Millets > Foxtail Millet
Mandate crops > Sorghum
Depositing User: Mr Ramesh MNR
Date Deposited: 13 Jun 2022 10:45
Last Modified: 12 Jul 2022 13:14
URI: http://oar.icrisat.org/id/eprint/11992
Official URL: https://doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2021.687428
Acknowledgement: The authors would like to acknowledge the following authors and editors of journals who sent in missing data or their full paper to support this meta-analysis: Lily Arsanti Lestari, Bernatal Saragih, Chithra Muthu, Raju Nagaraju, Matthew Mcsweeney, Sun-Ok Lee, Damayanti Korrapati, Neelam Yadav, Radhai Sree, Jali M.V, and Alegbejo Janet. We also thank author Ram B. Singh who clarified having used finger millet in his study. The support rendered in data collection by the staff and library of the Avinashilingam University for Women, Coimbatore, is gratefully acknowledged. Thanks are also due to M. Azim Aijaz, Associate Managing Editor, Journal of Pure and Applied Microbiology (JPAM) for providing the article. Our special thanks goes to Joycelyn M. Boiteau, Division of Nutritional Sciences, Cornell University, Tata-Cornell Institute for Agriculture and Nutrition, United States, for reviewing this paper. The authors acknowledge Ms. Smitha Sitaraman, ICRISAT, for editing the manuscript.
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