Drought and High Temperature Stress in Sorghum: Physiological, Genetic, and Molecular Insights and Breeding Approaches

Prasad, V B R and Govindaraj, M and Djanaguiraman, M and Djalovic, I and Shailani, A and Rawat, N and Singla-Pareek, S L and Pareek, A and Prasad, P V V (2021) Drought and High Temperature Stress in Sorghum: Physiological, Genetic, and Molecular Insights and Breeding Approaches. International Journal of Molecular Sciences (TSI), 22 (18). pp. 1-25. ISSN 1422-0067

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Sorghum is one of the staple crops for millions of people in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and South Asia (SA). The future climate in these sorghum production regions is likely to have unexpected short or long episodes of drought and/or high temperature (HT), which can cause significant yield losses. Therefore, to achieve food and nutritional security, drought and HT stress tolerance ability in sorghum must be genetically improved. Drought tolerance mechanism, stay green, and grain yield under stress has been widely studied. However, novel traits associated with drought (restricted transpiration and root architecture) need to be explored and utilized in breeding. In sorghum, knowledge on the traits associated with HT tolerance is limited. Heat shock transcription factors, dehydrins, and genes associated with hormones such as auxin, ethylene, and abscisic acid and compatible solutes are involved in drought stress modulation. In contrast, our understanding of HT tolerance at the omic level is limited and needs attention. Breeding programs have exploited limited traits with narrow genetic and genomic resources to develop drought or heat tolerant lines. Reproductive stages of sorghum are relatively more sensitive to stress compared to vegetative stages. Therefore, breeding should incorporate appropriate pre-flowering and post-flowering tolerance in a broad genetic base population and in heterotic hybrid breeding pipelines. Currently, more than 240 QTLs are reported for drought tolerance-associated traits in sorghum prospecting discovery of trait markers. Identifying traits and better understanding of physiological and genetic mechanisms and quantification of genetic variability for these traits may enhance HT tolerance. Drought and HT tolerance can be improved by better understanding mechanisms associated with tolerance and screening large germplasm collections to identify tolerant lines and incorporation of those traits into elite breeding lines. Systems approaches help in identifying the best donors of tolerance to be incorporated in the SSA and SA sorghum breeding programs. Integrated breeding with use of highthroughput precision phenomics and genomics can deliver a range of drought and HT tolerant genotypes that can improve yield and resilience of sorghum under drought and HT stresses.

Item Type: Article
Divisions: Research Program : Asia
Uncontrolled Keywords: Drought, High temperature, Mechanisms, Genetics, Breeding
Subjects: Others > Plant Genetics
Others > Plant Breeding
Mandate crops > Sorghum
Others > Drought
Depositing User: Mr Arun S
Date Deposited: 15 Sep 2021 10:13
Last Modified: 15 Sep 2021 10:13
URI: http://oar.icrisat.org/id/eprint/11892
Official URL: https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22189826
Acknowledgement: The authors thank their organizations and institutions, which supported their stress physiology research. Contribution number 22-067-J from Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station.
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