Balanced amino acid and higher micronutrients in millets complements legumes for improved human dietary nutrition

Anitha, S and Govindaraj, M and Kane-Potaka, J (2019) Balanced amino acid and higher micronutrients in millets complements legumes for improved human dietary nutrition. Cereal Chemistry (TSI). pp. 1-11. ISSN 0009-0352

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Background and objectives: More than 2 billion people suffer with malnutrition arising from dietary protein and micronutrients deficiencies. To enhance the dietary nutrient quality, the current study used two largely grown varieties of finger millet, pearl millet, pigeonpea, and chickpea to evaluate the effect of millet–legume blends for their enhanced protein digestibility, amino acid profiles, and essential micronutrients. Findings: Our study revealed the presence of significant levels of proteins (6.3%– 22.3%), essential amino acids, and micronutrients (Fe: 2.6–8.5 mg; Zn: 2–5.5 mg; Ca: 22‐450 mg in 100 g) in these varieties. When specific millets combined with legumes in 3:1 proportion, significantly enhanced nutritional value of food by providing a balanced amino acid with good protein digestibility, and high levels of iron (7.58 mg) and zinc (4.96 mg) with 100 g of pearl millet and calcium (400.57 mg) with 100 g of finger millet. Conclusions: Pigeonpea and chickpea have a good level of proteins with essential amino acids except methionine and cysteine, whereas millet had balanced amino acid including methionine and cysteine (50% higher) and much higher levels of micronutrients (Fe, Zn and Ca). Therefore, specific millets and legumes combination complemented higher levels of micronutrients in addition to complete proteins to support comprehensive human nutrition. Significance and novelty: This study opens prospects for selecting complementary nutrient‐dense varieties for household consumption. Industries can explore these product developments significantly to reduce malnutrition if consumed adequately, which is not possible with polished rice, refined wheat flour or maize even if it is combined with legumes.

Item Type: Article
Divisions: Research Program : Asia
Strategic Marketing and Communication
Uncontrolled Keywords: Daily value, In vitro protein digestibility, Millet–legume combination, Millets, Protein and Micronutrients
Subjects: Others > Smart Foods
Mandate crops > Millets
Mandate crops > Millets > Pearl Millet
Mandate crops > Millets > Finger Millet
Mandate crops > Chickpea
Mandate crops > Pigeonpea
Others > Food and Nutrition
Others > Legume Crops
Depositing User: Mr Arun S
Date Deposited: 02 Dec 2019 06:12
Last Modified: 08 Sep 2021 04:50
Official URL:
Acknowledgement: This work is undertaken as part of the Smart Food initiative that is led by Africa and Asia by ICRISAT, FARA, CORAF, FANRPAN, and APAARI. In India, the efforts for millets are co‐led with IIMR. The authors thank Smart Food endowment fund and ICRISAT for the grant support and are grateful to Srinivasan Samineni, Anupama Hingane, and Sobhan Sajja for providing the chickpea, pigeonpea, and finger millet varieties, respectively, used in this study.
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