Role and Regulation of Osmolytes and ABA Interaction in Salt and Drought Stress Tolerance

Rajasheker, G and Jawahar, G and Jalaja, N and Kumar, S A and Kumari, P H and Punita, D L and Karumanchi, A R and Reddy, P S and Rathnagiri, P and Sreenivasulu, N and Kavi Kishor, P B (2019) Role and Regulation of Osmolytes and ABA Interaction in Salt and Drought Stress Tolerance. In: Plant Signaling Molecules : Role and Regulation Under Stressful Environment. Elsevier, pp. 417-436. ISBN 978-0-12-816451-8

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Abiotic stress conditions lead to the defects in plant growth and development and also reduction in flowering and fertility. Under prolonged stresses, imminent death of the plants has been observed. To cope with such stress conditions, plants accumulate a wide variety of organic solutes called osmolytes. Osmolytes are accumulated in bacteria, lower, and higher plants as a response primarily to abiotic stress. They encompass amino acids such as proline, tertiary sulfonium, and quaternary ammonium compounds like beatines, sugars (trehalose), and polyhydric alcohols (mannitol, sorbitol, pinitol, etc.). Osmolytes are accumulated in the cytoplasm as well as in chloroplasts in certain cases for osmotic adjustment under stress conditions. This enables the plants to absorb water and survive under stress. Out of the many phytohormones that play diverse roles during abiotic stress, abscisic acid (ABA) is an important one and perceived by plants by a core signaling module. As an integral part of signal transduction during stress conditions, ABA and other hormones regulate not only stomatal closure, but also a wide array of gene expressions including osmolyte biosynthetic pathway genes. Many signal molecules like nitric oxide, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen sulfide also play a vital role in osmolyte biosynthesis. Osmolytes appear to have multiple functions during stress such as osmotic adjustment and scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Thus, generation of ROS and osmolyte accumulation are linked together. This review summarizes the role played by ABA in signal transduction, the role of hormones to regulate osmolyte biosynthesis, and various functions carried out by them.

Item Type: Book Section
Divisions: Research Program : Genetic Gains
Uncontrolled Keywords: Abiotic stress, ABA-sensing mechanism, osmolyte regulation, ABA in osmolyte biosynthesis, osmolytes and signaling, osmolyte functions
Subjects: Others > Abiotic Stress
Others > Drought Tolerance
Others > Molecular Biology
Depositing User: Mr Ramesh K
Date Deposited: 30 Jul 2019 09:33
Last Modified: 30 Jul 2019 09:33
Acknowledgement: PBK is thankful for sanctioning CSIR-Emeritus Scientist Fellowship through the Grant Number 38(1325)/12/EMR-II) by the Council for Scientifics and Industrial Research, New Delhi.
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