Mapping and modeling groundnut growth and productivity in rainfed areas of Tamil Nadu

Deiveegan, M (2017) Mapping and modeling groundnut growth and productivity in rainfed areas of Tamil Nadu. PHD thesis, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University Coimbatore.

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Pazhanivelan, SUNSPECIFIED


A research study was conducted at Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore during kharif and rabi 2015 to estimate groundnut area, model growth and productivity and assess the vulnerability of groundnut to drought using remote sensing techniques. Multi temporal Sentinel 1A satellite data at VV and VH polarization with 20 m spatial resolution was acquired from May, 2015 to January, 2016 at 12 days interval and processed using MAPscape-RICE software. Continuous monitoring was done for ground truth on crop parameters in twenty monitoring sites and validation exercise was done for accuracy assessment. Input files on soil, weather and management practices were generated and crop coefficients pertaining to varieties were developed to assess growth and productivity of groundnut using DSSAT CROPGRO-Peanut model. Outputs from remote sensing and DSSAT model were assimilated to generate LAI thereby groundnut yield spatially and validated against observed yields. Being a rainfed crop, vulnerability of groundnut to drought was assessed integrating different meteorological and spectral indices viz., Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Water Requirement Satisfaction Index (WRSI).Spectral dB curve of groundnut was generated using temporal multi date Sentinel 1A data. A detailed analysis of temporal signatures of groundnut showed a minimum at sowing and a peak at pod development stage and decreasing thereafter towards maturity. Groundnut crop expressed a significant temporal behaviour and large dynamic range (-11.74 to -5.31 in VV polarization and -20.04 to -13.05 in VH polarization) during its growth period. Groundnut area map was generated using maximum likelihood classifier integrating multi temporal features with a classification accuracy of 87.2 per cent and a kappa score of 0.74. The total classified groundnut area in the study districts was 88023 ha covering 17817 and 22582 ha in Salem and Namakkal districts during kharif 2015 while Villupuram and Tiruvannamalai districts accounted for 22722 and 24903 ha respectively during rabi 2015. Blockwise statistics on groundnut area during both seasons were also generated. To model growth and productivity of groundnut in DSSAT, weather and soil input files were generated using weatherman and ‘S’ build respectively besides deriving genetic coefficients for CO 6, TMV 7 and VRI 2 varieties of groundnut. Growth and development variables of groundnut were simulated using CROPGROPeanut model i.e., days to emergence (7-9 days) and anthesis (25-32 days), canopy height (63 to 70 cm), maximum LAI (1.12 to 3.07) and biomass (4176 to 9576 kg ha-1 across twenty monitoring locations spatially. The resultant pod yield was simulated to be 1796 to 3060 kg ha-1 with a harvest index of 0.28 to 0.43. On comparison of LAI between observed (2.01 to 4.05) and simulated values (1.12 to 3.07) the CROPGRO-Peanut model was found to under estimate the values with R2, RMSE and NRMSE of 0.82, 1.10 and 34 per cent. However, the model predicted the biomass of groundnut with an agreement of 89 per cent through the simulated values of 4176 to9576 kg ha-1 as against the observed biomass to 4620 to 9959 kg ha-1. The simulated pod yields of groundnut in the study area were 1796 to 3060 kg ha-1 as compared to the observed yields of 2115 to 2750 kg ha-1. The overall agreement between simulated and observed yields was 84 per cent with the average errors of 0.81, 342 kg ha-1 and 16 percent for R2, RMSE and NRMSE respectively. LAI values of groundnut, generated spatially through suitable regression models using dB from satellite images and LAI from DSSAT, ranged from 1.31 to 3.23 with R2, RMSE and NRMSE of 0.86, 0.78 and 24 per cent respectively on comparison with observed values. Remote sensing based spatial estimation resulted in groundnut pod yields of 1570 to 3102 kg ha-1 across the study districts of Salem, Namakkal, Tiruvannamalai and Villupuram. In the 20 monitoring locations, the pod yields were estimated to be 1912 to 2975 kg ha-1 as against the observed pod yields of 1450 to 2750 kg ha-1 with a fairly good agreement of 80 per cent. The vulnerability of groundnut was assessed using different drought indices viz., SPI, NDVI and WRSI. Considering SPI, out of the total groundnut area of 88023 ha, an area of 86607 ha was found to be under near normal condition based on deviation of rainfall received during cropping season from historical precipitation. Similarly NDVI, an indicator of vegetation condition during the cropping season, showed that 14272 ha of groundnut area were under stressed condition during 2015. An area of 40981 ha in Villupuram and Tiruvannamalai districts was found to be under chances of crop failure based on Water Requirement Satisfaction index (WRSI). Major groundnut areas of Salem district (14188 ha) was under medium risk zone. Considering overall vulnerability, whole district of Villupuram was adjudged as highly vulnerable to drought with regard to groundnut cultivation whereas four blocks of Salem, eight blocks of Namakkal and all the blocks of Tiruvannamalai were found to be moderately vulnerable to drought.

Item Type: Thesis (PHD)
Uncontrolled Keywords: Groundnut, Mapping, Modeling, Rainfed, Productivity
Subjects: Mandate crops > Groundnut
Depositing User: Mr T L Gautham
Date Deposited: 07 Nov 2017 09:36
Last Modified: 17 Jan 2018 08:02
Acknowledgement: UNSPECIFIED
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