Marker-Assisted Selection for Biotic Stress Resistance in Peanut

Burow, M D and Leal-Bertioli, S C M and Simpson, C E and Ozias-Akins, P and Chu, Y and Denwar, N N and Chagoya, J and Starr, J L and Moretzsohn, M C and Pandey, M K and Varshney, R K and Holbrook, C C and Bertioli, D J (2013) Marker-Assisted Selection for Biotic Stress Resistance in Peanut. In: Translational Genomics for Crop Breeding: Biotic Stress. Wiley Blackwell, pp. 125-150. ISBN 978-0-470-96290-9

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Peanut is the second-most important legume grown worldwide. Cultivated peanut is a disomic tetraploid, 2n—4x—40, with limited genetic diversity due to a genetic bottleneck in formation of the polyploid from ancestors A. duranensis and A. ipaensis. Consequently, resistance_to biotic stresses is limited in the cultigen; however, wild species possess strong resistances. Transfer o f these resistances is hindered by differences o f ploidy, but production o f synthetic amphidiploids, coupled with use o f molecular markers, enables efficient gene transfer. Marker maps have been made from interspecific crosses, and SSR-based maps from cultivated parents have been developed recently. At least 410 resistance gene analogues have been identified. The first markers for biotic stress tolerance were for root-knot nematode resistance and introgressed from one A. cardenasii chromosome. These and improved markers have been used for marker-assisted backcrossing, contributing to release of three cultivars. Additional QTLs have been identified since. Early and late leafspots cause significant yield losses worldwide, and resistance depends on multiple genes. Using interspecific populations, five resistance QTLs for early leafspot were identified using greenhouse inoculations, and five QTLs for late leafspot were identified using detached leaf assays. Using cultivated species populations, 28 QTLs were identified for LLS resistance; all but one were minor QTLs; the major QTL was donated by an interspecific introgression line parent. Rust often occurs alongside leafspots, and rust resistance was characterized as one major QTL, plus several smaller QTLs. Marker-assisted backcrossing o f this major QTL has been performed into different populations. QTLs for resistance to other biotic stresses have been identified, namely to groundnut rosette virus, Sclerotinia blight, afiatoxin contamination, aphids, and tomato spotted wilt virus. Marker-assisted breeding is still in early stages, and development o f more rapid and inexpensive markers from transcriptome and genome sequencing is expected to accelerate progress.

Item Type: Book Section
Divisions: RP-Grain Legumes
Subjects: Mandate crops > Groundnut
Others > Genetics and Genomics
Depositing User: Mr Siva Shankar
Date Deposited: 05 Mar 2014 03:31
Last Modified: 05 Mar 2014 03:31
Acknowledgement: UNSPECIFIED
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