Spatial mapping of agricultural water productivity using the SWAT model in Upper Bhima catchment, India

Garg, K K and Bharati, L and Gaur, A and George, B and Acharya, S and Jella, K and Narasimhan, B (2012) Spatial mapping of agricultural water productivity using the SWAT model in Upper Bhima catchment, India. Irrigation and Drainage, 61 (1). pp. 60-79. ISSN 1531-0353

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The Upper Bhima River Basin is facing both episodic and chronic water shortages due to intensive irrigation development. The main objective of this study was to characterize the hydrologic processes of the Upper Bhima River Basin and assess crop water productivity using the distributed hydrologic model, SWAT. Rainfall within the basin varies from 450 to 5000 mm in a period of 3–4 months. The basin has an average rainfall of 711 mm (32 400 Mm3 (million cubic metres)) in a normal year, of which 12.8% (4150 Mm3) and 21% (6800 Mm3) are captured by the reservoirs and groundwater reserves, respectively, 7% (2260 Mm3) exported as runoff out of the basin and the rest (63%) used in evapotranspiration. Agricultural water productivity for sugarcane, sorghum and millet were estimated as 2.90, 0.51 and 0.30 kg m−3, respectively, which were significantly lower than the potential and global maximum in the basin and warrant further improvement. Various scenarios involving different cropping patterns were tested with the goal of increasing economic water productivity values in the Ujjani Irrigation Scheme. Analysis suggests that maximization of the area by provision of supplemental irrigation to rainfed areas as well as better on-farm water management practices can provide opportunities for improving water productivity. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: hydrological modelling; SWAT; crop water productivity; water balance; Upper Bhima; Ujjani Irrigation Scheme
Subjects: Others > Watershed Management
Depositing User: Users 6 not found.
Date Deposited: 09 Nov 2011 06:14
Last Modified: 16 Sep 2013 09:55
Official URL:
Funders: Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research
Acknowledgement: This research was supported by a grant (LWR/2003/026) from the Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR). The views expressed in this article are those of authors alone and do not necessarily represent the official position of the World Bank. The authors would like to thank Dr W.W. Immerzeel for his support in the setting up the model. The authors are also grateful for the support provided by the Irrigation Project and Water Resources Investigation Circle, Pune, India, Hydrology Surface Data Centre, Nashik, India and Ujjani Command Area Development Authority, Solapur, India.
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