Aflatoxin B1 levels in groundnut products from local markets in Zambia

Njoroge, S M C and Matumba, L and Kanenga, K and Siambi, M and Waliyar, F and Maruwo, J and Machinjiri, N and Monyo, E S (2017) Aflatoxin B1 levels in groundnut products from local markets in Zambia. Mycotoxin Research. pp. 1-7. ISSN 0178-7888

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Abstract

In Zambia, groundnut products (milled groundnut powder, groundnut kernels) are mostly sold in under-regulated markets. Coupled with the lack of quality enforcement in such markets, consumers may be at risk to aflatoxin exposure. However, the level of aflatoxin contamination in these products is not known. Compared to groundnut kernels, milled groundnut powder obscures visual indicators of aflatoxin contamination in groundnuts such as moldiness, discoloration, insect damage or kernel damage. A survey was therefore conducted from 2012 to 2014, to estimate and compare aflatoxin levels in these products (n = 202), purchased from markets in important groundnut growing districts and in urban areas. Samples of whole groundnut kernels (n = 163) and milled groundnut powder (n = 39) were analysed for aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) by competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA). Results showed substantial AFB1 contamination levels in both types of groundnut products with maximum AFB1 levels of 11,100 μg/kg (groundnut kernels) and 3000 μg/kg (milled groundnut powder). However, paired t test analysis showed that AFB1 contamination levels in milled groundnut powder were not always significantly higher (P > 0.05) than those in groundnut kernels. Even for products from the same vendor, AFB1 levels were not consistently higher in milled groundnut powder than in whole groundnut kernels. This suggests that vendors do not systematically sort out whole groundnut kernels of visually poor quality for milling. However, the overall contamination levels of groundnut products with AFB1 were found to be alarmingly high in all years and locations. Therefore, solutions are needed to reduce aflatoxin levels in such under-regulated markets.

Item Type: Article
Divisions: Research Program : East & Southern Africa
CRP: CGIAR Research Program on Agriculture for Nutrition and Health
CGIAR Research Program on Grain Legumes
Uncontrolled Keywords: Food safety, Aflatoxin, Groundnut, Survey, Sub-Saharan Africa
Subjects: Others > Zambia
Mandate crops > Groundnut
Others > Aflatoxins
Others > East Africa
Depositing User: Mr Ramesh K
Date Deposited: 22 Feb 2017 04:57
Last Modified: 22 Feb 2017 05:14
URI: http://oar.icrisat.org/id/eprint/9890
Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12550-017-0270-5
Projects: UNSPECIFIED
Funders: USAID Feed the Future project on Aflatoxin Mitigation in Zambia
Acknowledgement: We thank Willard Sinkala (Zambia Agriculture Research Institute-ZARI), Griven Phiri (ZARI) and Enock Musukwa (ZARI) for technical support. We also thank Ishrad Mohammed (ICRISAT-India) for generating GIS maps. This research was funded by USAID Feed the Future project on Aflatoxin Mitigation in Zambia, grant number EEM-G-00-04-0003-00 modification # 11/12. The study was carried out as part of CGIAR Research Program on Grain Legumes and also as part of CGIAR Research Program on Agriculture for Nutrition and Health.
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