Tailoring of Abiotic Stress Adaptive Traits to Diminish the Eff ect of Changing Climate on Crop Productivity

Arunachalam, P and Govindaraj, M and Kannan, P and Sritharan, N (2015) Tailoring of Abiotic Stress Adaptive Traits to Diminish the Eff ect of Changing Climate on Crop Productivity. In: Crop Improvement in the Era of Climate Change. I K International Publishing House Pvt. Ltd, India, pp. 374-402. ISBN 978-9382332619

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Abstract

The world population is likely to exceed 10 billion by 2050, thereby increasing food, feed and fuel production demand. On the other hand, global climate change (drought, heat, salinity, elevated CO2 and extreme cold) hostile the global agricultural productions. The changes in climatic factors perhaps influence the crop distribution, affect the crop growth and yield, and increase the risks of farming and human health consequences in developing countries. Crop breeding is one of the approaches to fight environmental challenges in agriculture. Available literatures imply that genotypes of different crop species are expressing greater phenotypic variability to tolerate abiotic stresses by inherent constitutional. Hence, there is an opportunity for utilizing the existing variability in abiotic stress tolerance traits. The gene sources for abiotic tolerance are available in germplasm collection, landraces, or wild relatives, if not, with less frequency it can be created as transgenes, so moclones or mutants. However, to make significant advancement in abiotic stress breeding requires accurate and reproducible phenotyping under well-imposed stress environment. The targeted trait for abiotic stress tolerance should have high positive correlation with yield attributes and be amenable for scoring in given environment. The traits introgressed for abiotic stress tolerance vary with stress scenario, timing and intensity of stress encountered by the crop species. Most of the traits that confer abiotic stress tolerance are quantitative in nature. The conventional crop improvement strategy followed to transfer abiotic stress tolerance is by recurrent selection and backcross breeding, which delivered limited success. The recent advancement through rapid and high-throughput phenotyping and genotyping have given much hope for tailoring desirable traits to evolve climate-resilient cultivars. The gene pyramiding strategy is useful to accumulate desirable abiotic tolerant traits into a commercially preferred cultivar. Further, transgenic and double haploid approaches will help in accelerating the trait pyramiding strategy. The climate-resilient cultivars with climate-smart farming will offer sustainable and cost-effective solution to the changing agro-climatic situations.

Item Type: Book Section
Divisions: RP-Dryland Cereals
CRPS: CGIAR Research Program on Dryland Cereals
Uncontrolled Keywords: Abiotic stress, breeding, phenotyping, tolerance, trait pyramiding
Subjects: Others > Climate change
Depositing User: Mr Ramesh K
Date Deposited: 17 Aug 2015 10:10
Last Modified: 17 Aug 2015 10:10
URI: http://oar.icrisat.org/id/eprint/8939
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