Implications and Ways to Enhance Nutrient Use Efficiency Under Changing Climate

Kannan, P and Arunachalam, P and Govindaraj, M (2015) Implications and Ways to Enhance Nutrient Use Efficiency Under Changing Climate. In: Crop Improvement in the Era of Climate Change. I K International Publishing House Pvt. Ltd, India, pp. 115-142. ISBN 978-9382332619

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Abstract

Introduction of fertilizer and fertilizer responsive crop varieties paved way for green revolution and it was responsible for doubling the crop production to meet the food grain needs of ever growing global population. Over the four decades reduced use of organic manure and injudicious use of inorganic fertilizer led to declining trend of organic carbon and pose serious global warming threats to the environment as well as mankind. Among the mineral fertilizer, nitrogen fertilizer occupies a major share in the global scenario in terms of production and application, it is the important crop responsive fertilizer at the same time overdose and improper application may cause N2O emission and NO3 contamination in groundwater. Phosphorus and potassium fertilizers are applied in large quantity next to nitrogen. Continuous use of primary nutrients and negligence of secondary (Ca, Mg and S) and micronutrients (Fe, Zn, B, Cu, Mn and Mo) application exposed severe multi-nutrient defi ciency in the soil. Changing climate highly infl uence the crop phenology, physiology, root morphology and uptake mechanism. Th erefore it is inevitable to understand the climate change mediated changes in soil nutrient availability and plant nutrient uptake in diff erent ecosystem. In the past two decades decreasing trend of nutrients utilization effi ciency and defi ciency of micronutrients rendered the land barren under changing climate. But direct impact of climate change on nutrient availability and uptake mechanism has not been understood. In this context, developing or modifying the management strategies to enhance the use effi ciency of applied nutrients is of paramount importance. Climate smart management techniques such as appropriate timing of nutrient application, using effi cient irrigation practices, converting to nitrogen-fi xing plants as cover crops and crop rotation. Employing advanced fertilization techniques such as controlled-release fertilizers and nitrifi cation inhibitors enhances crop productivity in sustainable manner. All these management techniques need to be tested through diff erent quantitative measures of nutrient use effi ciency of crops under diff erent soil conditions. Development of smart fertilizer delivery system for all the crops in diff erent cropping system needs to be explored. Tailoring of higher nutrient use effi ciency cultivars of diff erent crops should to be accelerated using advanced breeding techniques to mitigate adverse infl uence of climate change on crop productivity improvement.

Item Type: Book Section
Divisions: RP-Dryland Cereals
CRPS: CGIAR Research Program on Dryland Cereals
Uncontrolled Keywords: Biofertilizer, climate change, fertilizer, nutrient use efficiency, soil management
Subjects: Others > Climate change
Depositing User: Mr Ramesh K
Date Deposited: 17 Aug 2015 09:01
Last Modified: 18 Aug 2015 05:44
URI: http://oar.icrisat.org/id/eprint/8938
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