Estimation of ICRISAT Sorghum Research Spillover benefits – Strategies for Research Prioritization and Resource Allocation

Kumara Charyulu, D and Bantilan, M C S and Reddy, B V S and Kumar, A A and Ahmed, I and Davis, J (2014) Estimation of ICRISAT Sorghum Research Spillover benefits – Strategies for Research Prioritization and Resource Allocation. Working Paper. ICRISAT, Patancheru.

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ICRISAT has been doing massive research on sorghum crop improvement primarily in SA and SSA since 1972. Diversified regional focuses along with collaborations of different international institutes led the sorghum genetic enhancement at ICRISAT in to a six phase strategy beginning from 1972 to till now. In the initial years, the main focus was on development of improved population, composites and open pollinated varieties of sorghum. But with rapid development of hybrid seed industry in Asia and re-orientation of research programs in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), emphasis was laid on developing improved hybrid parents at ICRISAT Patancheru for Asia, and finished products (varieties and hybrids) at other ICRISAT locations in Africa, through partnership research from 1995. Hybrid Parents Research Consortium (HPRC) is a new initiative started in 2000 at ICRISAT, Patancheru with an objective of increasing the scope of accessibility to better hybrids by poor farmers through effective public-private partnerships. So far, ICRISAT has released 250 improved cultivars in collaboration with/transfer materials to NARS across 44 countries in Asia, Africa and America regions between 1975 and 2011. Almost 52.8 per cent of these releases were concentrated in African countries followed by Asia (33.2%) and America (14%). These global releases were composed of 191 varieties and 49 hybrids with diversified traits and targeted niches. These research products aimed at a given location may spill across regions, nations or even across traditional agro-ecological zones. The potential for such spillovers depends on several factors like bio-physical and socio-economic similarities between locations. The recent attempt made by ICRISAT (Shiferaw et al., 2004) has documented the potential of inter- and intra-regional sorghum technology transfers. Further, Bantilan et al., (2004) estimated the ICRISAT sorghum research spillovers and their determinants. However, very little has been done in terms of assessing and systematically quantifying the potential and actual inter-regional spillovers from its own research and development efforts. As part of ICRISAT Medium Term Plan (MTP), 1994-98 preparations, an initial exercise was done for identification of global research domains in Asia and Africa during 1992. Based on scientists’ vast knowledge and availability of crop constraints information, eight research domains across globe were identified for targeting the research activities. They are quite useful even today, but their applicability and accuracy was limited by present technological advances. Utilizing the rapid developments and opportunities available in Geographic Information Systems (GIS), the research domains were revised and improved. After several iterations and discussions, 13 homogenous sorghum research domains were identified across globe using vast scientific knowledge, expertise and other relevant materials. Multi-region, single commodity economic surplus model developed by Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR) was adapted for estimation of ICRISAT sorghum spillover benefits. The results have clearly indicated that more than 50 per cent of global sorghum production is contributed by Warm-tropics dryland environment followed by Warm-tropics sub-humid (24 per cent). Across 13 research domains identified, Warm tropics sub-humid, > 150 days (RD13) has the highest share of production (25 per cent) followed by Warm tropics drylands, 120-149 days (RD6) (20 per cent) and Warm tropics drylands, > 150 days (RD7) (15 per cent). The estimated welfare benefits across research domains for each individual research focus concluded that Warm tropics drylands, 120-149 days (RD6) has the highest potential based on ICRISAT Focus in real world scenario both with and without research applicability criterion. This clearly reveals that ICRISAT has to focus more on RD-6 for attaining higher (high-pay-off) welfare benefits in SA and SSA regions. In absolute term, Research domain-5 exhibited highest spillover (in-direct) benefits followed by Research domain-10 and Research domain-8. In terms of regional shares, nearly 70-90 per cent benefits were accruing alone in Asia, especially in India. The next beneficiary regions in the row are WCA and ESA regions respectively. The sensitivity analysis showed that huge scope for gaining sorghum welfare benefits under ICRISAT Focus (Asia, ESA and WCA together) than in ROW. Among the three regions in ICRISAT Focus, WCA has indicated vast potential in the region when compared with other regions. Countries like Nigeria, Burkina Faso and Mali in WCA region and Sudan, Ethiopia and Tanzania in ESA region have exhibited enormous potentials for sorghum welfare benefits in the sensitivity analysis. The results also indicated that the benefits can increase from 8 to 24 times depend on the country. Correspondingly, ICRISAT Management has to allocate its resources more to WCA followed by ESA and Asia regions.

Item Type: Monograph (Working Paper)
Divisions: RP-Market Institutions and Policies
CRP: CGIAR Research Program on Policies, Institutions, and Markets (PIM)
Series Name: Working Paper Series
Subjects: Mandate crops > Sorghum
Depositing User: Mr B K Murthy
Date Deposited: 12 Jan 2015 05:32
Last Modified: 14 Mar 2017 05:00
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