Testing Integrated Food Energy Systems: Improved Stoves and Pigeon Pea in Southern Malawi. Socioeconomics Discussion Paper Series 8

Orr, A and Kabombo, B and Roth, C and Harris, D and Doyle, V (2013) Testing Integrated Food Energy Systems: Improved Stoves and Pigeon Pea in Southern Malawi. Socioeconomics Discussion Paper Series 8. [Socioeconomics Discussion Paper Series]

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Abstract

Between 2007-2010 Concern, Universal distributed energy-efficient stoves to 9,000 smallholders in Balaka district, southern Malawi, as part of Msamala Sustainable Energy Project (MSEP) funded by the European Union. Households that purchased a stove each received a gift of 3 kg of pigeonpea seed for the variety Mthawajuni, which produces thick and bushy stems. In combination, energy-efficient stoves and pigeonpea formed an Integrated Food Energy System (IFES) that can reduce demand for fuel-wood, increase the supply of fuel-wood from pigeonpea stems, and improve household food security and nutrition by providing pigeonpea grain. This report summarises the results of an evaluation of this IFES. A household survey was conducted in the 2010/11 cropping season to determine the impacts on demand for fuel-wood, household food security, cash income, and on soil health and fertility. The results are based on a random sample of 230 households from seven villages in Balaka district, comprising 115 households that purchased an energy-efficient stove, and a control group of 115 households using traditional stoves. The survey covered a period of three cropping seasons between 2008/09 and 2010/11. Food security: Between 60-70% of pigeonpea, grain harvested was kept for home consumption. The average quantity consumed was 40 kg/household. Among households growing pigeonpea, nine in ten households fed the grain to children under five compared to only two in ten households that did not grow pigeonpea. Cash income: About 30% of pigeonpea harvested was sold to generate cash income. Fifty-seven per cent of households growing pigeonpea ranked it as their first or second-most important cash crop. The average value of pigeonpea sold ranged from 500 - 1,612 Mk/year ($2 - 11). However, the total value of pigeonpea grain was similar to or less than the value for pigeonpea stems. In 2010/11, the value of pigeonpea grain was only 45% of the value of stems used for fuel. Soil health and fertility: Households that had intercropped pigeonpea with maize over three seasons were significantly more likely to observe bigger maize cobs and higher yields for maize, as well as positive impacts on soil health such as improved water filtration and less compacted soils. Adoption of energy efficient stoves: Households were more likely to buy energy-efficient stoves if they were better-off rather than poor, if they lived far from forests and hills where fuel-wood was available, if they believed that fuel-wood was scarce, and if women had an important role in decision-making. However, the decision to purchase was not significantly related to actual fuel-wood consumption. Frequency of fuel-wood consumption: In combination, energy-efficient stoves and pigeonpea reduced the frequency of fuel-wood collection and purchase by 48%. On average, the use of pigeonpea stems for fuel saved households MK 3,000 ($20) per year. This confirms their effectiveness in reducing pressure on natural resources. However, households that sourced fuel-wood from their own trees or from village woodlots reduced the frequency of fuel-wood collection and purchase by 81%....

Item Type: Socioeconomics Discussion Paper Series
Divisions: UNSPECIFIED
CRPS: UNSPECIFIED
Series Name: Socioeconomics Discussion Paper Series 8
Subjects: Mandate crops > Pigeonpea
Depositing User: Mr Sanat Kumar Behera
Date Deposited: 28 Oct 2013 11:32
Last Modified: 10 Nov 2014 09:16
URI: http://oar.icrisat.org/id/eprint/7215
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