Défis et opportunités futurs pour la R&D dans les régions tropicales semi-arides

Ryan, J G and Spencer, D C (2002) Défis et opportunités futurs pour la R&D dans les régions tropicales semi-arides. Monograph. International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics.

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Future challenges and opportunities for agricultural R&D in the semi-arid tropics. This publication reviews past trends, summarizes the major constraints to income growth, food security, poverty alleviation, and environmental sustainability, and identifies future R&D strategies and priorities for the semi-arid tropics (SAT). The study focuses on sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, where poverty, food insecurity, child malnutrition, and gender inequalities are widespread. ICRISAT’s mandate cereals are becoming less important in household food budgets in Asia, but will remain staple foods of the poor in the driest areas, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. In addition, the anticipated growth in demand for livestock products will increase the derived demand for feedgrains, including sorghum and millet. Water will likely be the primary constraint throughout the SAT in the coming years. Research could focus on identifying genes that can improve water-use efficiency and drought tolerance. Other areas include crop and systems modeling, watershed management, and water policy.Poor soil fertility is another key issue, and could be addressed using an integrated soil, water, and nutrient management approach. Research to improve nutrient-use efficiency will be critical, especially in Africa. Research is needed on the extent, effects, and processes of land degradation. Limiting the mandate to the current five crops may reduce ICRISAT’s future ability to impact on the welfare of the SAT poor. A thematic, problem-driven agenda would be more appropriate. Future research and policy agendas must account for regional differences, in resource endowments, infrastructure, etc. For example, labor-intensive technologies would be appropriate for the poor in South Asia, and labor-saving ones for sub-Saharan Africa. HIV/AIDS is a serious constraint to labor availability in Southern and Eastern Africa, and must receive explicit attention in R&D strategies. ICRISAT’s research agenda for the future could also include: village-level studies to better understand the apparent poverty-environmental degradation treadmill; reduction of marketing and transaction costs, especially in sub-Saharan Africa; strengthening the capacities of SAT farmers and national research systems with the aid of information technology; and development of gender-sensitive technology options.

Item Type: Monograph (Monograph)
Subjects: Others > Agriculture-Farming, Production, Technology, Economics
Depositing User: Library ICRISAT
Date Deposited: 08 Oct 2011 12:35
Last Modified: 08 Oct 2011 12:35
URI: http://oar.icrisat.org/id/eprint/369
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