Hydrological Modeling of a Micro Watershed using GIS-based Model SWAT: A Case Study of Kothapally Watershed in Southern India

Garg, K K and Wani, S P (2011) Hydrological Modeling of a Micro Watershed using GIS-based Model SWAT: A Case Study of Kothapally Watershed in Southern India. In: Use of High Science Tools in Integrated Watershed Management Proceedings of the National Symposium, 1–2 February 2010, NASC Complex, New Delhi, India.

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Rain-fed agriculture in arid or semi arid tropics is complex, diverse,risk prone, and characterized by low levels of productivity and lowinput usages. Kothapally, a micro watershed of 450 ha area is locatedapproximately 25 km upstream of Osman Sagar in Musi catchment ofSouthern India. Rainfall in this region is highly erratic both in terms oftotal amount and its distribution over time. ICRISAT consortium withnational partners (Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture(CRIDA), National Remote Sensing Agency (NRSA) now NRSC, andDistrict Water Management Agency (DWMA), in Hyderabad, AndhraPradesh,); and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) startedcommunity based watershed development program in Kothapallyvillage in 1999. Since the on-set of the program, water flows and cropparameters in the area have been monitored, creating database ofhydrological data and crop yield information. This data was analyzedwith the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to study the waterbalance for different water management options. In addition, flowreduction and soil loss from the fields was evaluated to assess thedownstream impacts on the Osman Sagar reservoir. It was foundthat different water management approaches significantly changesthe water balance of the system. Check-dams increase groundwaterrecharge which can be used for supplementary irrigation of themonsoon crop, and especially the second crop when rainfall is almostnil. Both check-dams and in-situ soil water management reduces theoutflow from the system. In-situ soil water management increasesevapotranspiration, which can be expected when more water isinfiltrated into the soil. Monsoonal analysis shows that watershedmanagement practices reduced surface runoff from 27% to 11%,improved groundwater availability from 9% to 22%, increased ET flowfrom 53% to 66% of total rainfall, and reduced soil loss from 1.5 tha-1 to 2.5 t ha-1 compared to pre-development stage. This programhas built resilience in the agricultural systems, and has improved thelivelihoods of the farmers.

Item Type: Conference or Workshop Item (Paper)
Uncontrolled Keywords: Hydrological modeling, SWAT, water balance, sedimenttransport, resilience, watershed management
Subjects: Others > Watershed Management
Depositing User: Mr Sanat Kumar Behera
Date Deposited: 02 Nov 2011 12:26
Last Modified: 02 Nov 2011 12:26
URI: http://oar.icrisat.org/id/eprint/3564
Acknowledgement: UNSPECIFIED
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