Calcium from Finger Millet—A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis on Calcium Retention, Bone Resorption, and In Vitro Bioavailability

Anitha, S and David, I G and Botha, R and Kane-Potaka, J and Sulaiman, N L B and Tsusaka, T W and Subramaniam, K and Rajendran, A and Parasannanavar, D J. and Bhandari, R K (2021) Calcium from Finger Millet—A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis on Calcium Retention, Bone Resorption, and In Vitro Bioavailability. Sustainability (TSI), 13 (8677). ISSN 2071-1050

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Calcium deficiency during child growth leads to osteoporosis in later stages of life. Finger millet is one of the calcium dense foods, with three times the level of calcium than milk, and the only cereal that contains high calcium content which is consistent across different varieties (364 ± 58 mg/100 g). Thus, finger millet has potential for addressing calcium deficiency naturally. This study aimed to determine the retention and impact of finger millet calcium on bone turnover through a systematic review and meta-analysis. Three human studies were eligible for systematic review. Of these, only two were eligible for meta-analysis to assess the retention of calcium in children of 9 to 12 years. One study on bone turnover markers was not used in the meta-analysis as at least two studies are required to conduct meta-analysis. Due to the lack of complete data only four studies were eligible for meta-analysis to assess the in vitro bioavailability of calcium from unprocessed and a range of different types of processed finger millet. The result shows that there was significant retention (p < 0.05) of 23.4 ± 2.9% calcium from finger-millet-based diet which could help bone accretion during child growth if finger-millet-based diet is consumed. The bone turnover marker study shows that the resorption of calcium reduced by 28% and 47% among peri and post-menopausal women respectively after feeding the nutria mixed grain ball. However, there is no significant change in bone formation marker. Depending on the type of processing, calcium bioavailability either increased or decreased. One in vitro study showed that calcium bioavailability from finger millet was 28.6% when boiled, whereas three studies on processing show that certain processing can double the calcium bioavailability to 61.4%. Irrespective of the type of processing, finger millets contribute to high calcium retention and extremely high bioavailable calcium and could be useful for healthy growth and in dealing with complications related to calcium deficiency.

Item Type: Article
Divisions: Strategic Marketing and Communication
Uncontrolled Keywords: Finger millet based diet, calcium deficiency, bioavailable calcium
Subjects: Others > Smart Foods
Mandate crops > Millets > Finger Millet
Depositing User: Mr Ramesh MNR
Date Deposited: 14 Jun 2022 03:39
Last Modified: 12 Jul 2022 13:16
Official URL:
Acknowledgement: The authors acknowledge Joycelyn M. Boiteau, Division of Nutritional Sciences, Cornell University Tata-Cornell Institute for Agriculture and Nutrition, the United States of America for reviewing the case and her valuable inputs that contributed significantly to the quality of the study. The authors thank the support provided by Ramesh Kotnana for advice and assistance in sourcing scientific articles.
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