A Critical Review of Aflatoxin Contamination of Peanuts in Malawi and Zambia: The Past, Present, and Future

Njoroge, S M C (2018) A Critical Review of Aflatoxin Contamination of Peanuts in Malawi and Zambia: The Past, Present, and Future. Plant Disease (TSI), 102 (12). pp. 2394-2406. ISSN 0191-2917

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Abstract

Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an important crop in Malawi and Zambia. The crop is valued for soil improvement in cereal-based cropping systems, for improving the livelihoods of farming households who consume it and also sell it for cash, and for earning foreign exchange when exported. Research and development efforts have resulted in an increase in both peanut production area and productivity. However, a key challenge that still needs to be solved in these countries is how to produce peanuts with acceptable levels of aflatoxin contamination. Data continues to show that aflatoxin continues to be a problem in both formal and informal trade. As a result, unlike 30 years ago, most of the peanut trade has now shifted to domestic and regional markets that do not restrict the sale of aflatoxin-contaminated peanuts. Impacts of aflatoxin contamination on health and also on the full cost burden of control are not well documented. Technologies are available for mitigating against aflatoxin contamination. The advantages, disadvantages, and gaps associated with these technologies are discussed. Considerable money and effort continues to be invested in Malawi and Zambia into mitigating aflatoxin contamination, but evidence of long-term success is limited. Based on past and current initiatives, the prospects of eliminating aflatoxin in the near future at the household level and in trade are not promising.

Item Type: Article
Divisions: Research Program : East & Southern Africa
CRP: CGIAR Research Program on Grain Legumes
Uncontrolled Keywords: Aflatoxin problem, aflatoxin mitigation strategy, aflatoxin control, postharvest management, biological control, agronomic and cultural practices, aflatoxin contamination, Malawi, Zambia, Africa
Subjects: Others > Post Harvest Management
Others > Zambia
Mandate crops > Groundnut
Others > African Agriculture
Others > Aflatoxins
Others > Malawi
Depositing User: Mr Ramesh K
Date Deposited: 04 Dec 2018 10:13
Last Modified: 04 Dec 2018 11:10
URI: http://oar.icrisat.org/id/eprint/10991
Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-02-18-0266-FE
Projects: UNSPECIFIED
Funders: United States Agency for International Development
Acknowledgement: My gratitude goes to Norah Machinjiri and Joseph Maruwo, from ICRISAT-Malawi, for data collection and determination of aflatoxin contamination using ELISA. My sincere appreciation to Mr. Kennedy Kanenga, Principal Scientist at Zambia Agriculture Research Institute (ZARI), for facilitating the field experiments at Msekera Research Station. I acknowledge Mr. Whytson Sakala of Eastern Province Farmer’s Cooperative for facilitating the sorting experiments. I would also like to thank Mr. Willard Sinkala and the late Griven Phiri, of ZARI, for excellent technical assistance. I sincerely thank Dr. A. P. Keinath of Clemson University, Dr. R. L. Brandenburg of North Carolina State University, Dr. D. Hoisington of The University of Georgia, and the two reviewers for their critical comments and suggestions. The views expressed in this paper is that of the author and should not be attributed to the institute of the author’s affiliation.
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