Effects of biochar and gypsum soil amendments on groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) dry matter yield and selected soil properties under water stress

Ngulube, M and Mweetwa, A M and Phiri, E and Njoroge, S M C and Chalwe, H and Shitumbanuma, V and Brandenburg, R L (2018) Effects of biochar and gypsum soil amendments on groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) dry matter yield and selected soil properties under water stress. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 13 (21). pp. 1080-1090. ISSN 1991-637X

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Abstract

The effects of amending soil with gypsum and biochar on groundnut chlorophyll concentration, water use efficiency (WUE), biomass yield and selected soil properties were investigated under water stress. Gypsum (CaSO4.2H2O) was applied at 0 and 200 kg/ha, groundnut shell biochar at 1, 2 and 4% w/w of soil, and water at 100, 70 and 40% of daily plant water requirement (PWR) as main, sub and sub-sub plots, respectively, in a split-split-plot design. Biochar neutralized the acid soil, significantly raising soil pH from 5 to 7.15 and increasing cation exchange capacity by 75%. Biochar amended at 1 and 2%, increased groundnut dry matter yield by 28%. The optimum biochar application rate for dry matter yield was 1.4% w/w. Biochar application at 4% and irrigation at 40% of PWR reduced the WUE by 45 and 50%, respectively. Chlorophyll concentration index was highest at 40% of PWR. The results suggest that biochar has potential to raise soil pH, increase moisture retention and improve crop performance. Applying water at 100% PWR can increase groundnut dry matter yields, while higher gypsum application rates may be required to affect crop performance.

Item Type: Article
Divisions: Research Program : East & Southern Africa
CRP: UNSPECIFIED
Uncontrolled Keywords: Biochar, dry matter, crop evapotranspiration, groundnut gypsum, water use efficiency, soil properties, water stress
Subjects: Others > Crop Physiology
Others > Soil Fertility
Others > Crop Yield
Mandate crops > Groundnut
Others > Water Resources
Depositing User: Mr Ramesh K
Date Deposited: 23 May 2018 06:30
Last Modified: 23 May 2018 06:30
URI: http://oar.icrisat.org/id/eprint/10681
Official URL: https://doi.org/10.5897/AJAR2018.13123
Projects: UNSPECIFIED
Funders: UNSPECIFIED
Acknowledgement: This study was funded by the U.S. Agency for International Development, under the terms of Award No. AID-ECG-A-00-07-0001 to The University of Georgia as management entity for the U.S. Feed the Future Innovation Lab on Peanut Productivity and Mycotoxin Control. Gratitude goes to the Lecturers and supporting staff in the Department of Soil Science and Plant Science for their support and availability during my research.
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